Small Galaxy With A Big, Dark Heart

Supermassive black holes, weighing millions to billions of times more than our Sun, are thought to dwell in the hearts of most–if not all–galaxies in the Universe. Such beasts are characterized by their extremely heavy masses, insatiable hunger, and messy table manners. These gravitational monstrosities are mysterious and puzzling. But, the mystery grew even more perplexing when a supermassive monster–weighing in at an unbelievable 17 billion Suns–was caught dwelling in the heart of a bizarre small galaxy that is almost entirely black hole!

“This is totally not what I was looking for. I was expecting to find really big black holes in really big galaxies,” Dr. Remco van den Bosch, an astronomer at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg, Germany, said in the November 26, 2012 Science Now. Dr. Van den Bosch is lead author of the paper describing this incredible gravitational monstrosity.

In 1915, Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity predicted the presence of objects that possessed such strong gravitational fields that anything that unfortunately traveled too close to their gaping mouths would be devoured. However, the concept of the real existence of such gravitational monstrosities seemed so remote that Einstein himself rejected the concept–but scientists now know that such beasts can and do exist.

Black holes of stellar-mass form when a very massive star collapses violently in the brilliant fireworks display of a supernova explosion, heralding the end of its life as a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star. After a hole of stellar-mass has been born, it can continue to gain weight by feeding on its surroundings. It is believed that a supermassive hole is born when one of stellar-mass gains weight by devouring stars and gas–as well as by merging with other black holes.

Astronomers have known for about a decade that perhaps every large galaxy in the Universe hosts a ravenous supermassive monster in its heart, sequestered there in sinister secret. Supermassive beasts can be at least as large as our entire Solar System. Our Milky Way Galaxy’s black hole is named Sagittarius A* (pronounced Sagittarius-a-star), and it is a calm old beast, except when it goes on an occasional feeding frenzy, and devours a hearty portion of gas or star-stuff that has unluckily floated too close to its maw. Sagittarius A* weighs in at approximately 4 million times as much as our Sun.

It is widely thought that supermassive black holes are subject to a standard correlation. That is, the heavier the galaxy’s central bulge of glittering stars, the more massive the resident sinister beast. This basically indicates that the weight of a galaxy’s star-blazing bulge is approximately a thousand times that of its central supermassive hole.

However, the little compact galaxy, NGC 1277, apparently marches to the beat of a different drum. The little galaxy, which is located approximately 250 million light-years from our planet, possesses a supermassive monster in its heart that makes up a whopping 14% of its entire mass. Most other galaxies are thought to obediently follow the beat of the “standard correlation”, and host black holes that amount to a comparatively trifling 0.1% of their total mass.

“This is a really oddball galaxy. It’s almost all black hole. This could be the first object in a new class of galaxy-black hole systems,” study team member Dr. Karl Gebbardt said in a statement published in the November 28, 2012 Gebbardt is at the University of Texas at Austin.

The study, published in the November 29, 2012 issue of the journal Nature, found that if this monster of a supermassive black hole was situated at the center of our own Solar System, it would swallow up all eight major planets and extend about 10 times further than the dwarf planet Pluto and its icy kind where they tumble around in the frigid, remote blackness of the Kuiper Belt.

NGC 1277 is a relatively small member of a cluster of galaxies located in the constellation Perseus. It also represents a type of galaxy commonly found to inhabit clusters. This little galaxy with a big, dark heart is a so-called lenticular galaxy, meaning that it is a bewitching cross between a spiral and an elliptical galaxy. Spirals are gigantic star-blazing pin-wheels, like our own Milky Way, and they contain stellar populations of all ages. Ellipticals are shaped like huge footballs, and they primarily host old, red stars. Like an elliptical, NGC 1277 no longer produces star-bursts of fiery baby stars, and primarily hosts only elderly stars. The most youthful stars in the little galaxy are 8 billion years old–meaning that they are twice the age of our middle-aged Sun, which is approximately 4.56 billion years old. However, like a lovely, pin-wheel-shaped spiral, NGC 1277 sports a disk that is brightly glittering with a multitude of incandescent stars.

“Maybe this thing is a relic from way back when,” Dr. Van den Bosch continued to speculate in the November 28, 2012 Science Now. He went on to explain that supermassive holes ignited by fiery quasars–which are especially active galactic nuclei (AGN) that inhabited the early Universe–haunted Space soon after the Big Bang. Perhaps, he went on to suggest, NGC 1277 represents a case of arrested development, and it began its galactic childhood as an immense black hole, but never managed to ensnare a host of fiery stars. In other words, like Peter Pan, NGC 1277 “never grew up”! Its sister-galaxies, swarming along with it in the Perseus cluster, may have selfishly taken for themselves the stars that would have enabled poor little NGC 1277 to reach star-struck galactic adulthood.

NGC 1277’s supermassive monster could be considerably more massive than the currently identified second-runner-up, which is calculated (though not confirmed) to weigh-in at approximately 6 billion to 37 billion solar-masses. This beast dwells within the dark heart of the galaxy NGC 4486B, and it hogs up approximately 11% of that galaxy’s central bulge.

Dr. Van den Bosch said in the November 28, 2012 that his team discovered the monster black hole during a survey it was conducting to hunt down “the biggest black holes we could find.”

The astronomers carefully analyzed the light emanating from 700 galaxies, using the huge light-gathering telescope, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, at the University of Texas at Austin’s McDonald Observatory. The team discovered that six of the galaxies under scrutiny had stars and other objects flying around inside of them at breathtaking average speeds of over 218 miles a second! The galaxies, like NGC 1277, were also petite–a mere 9,784 light-years across, or less. The team suspected that black holes were responsible for these measurements, and used archival data of NGC 1277 from the venerable Hubble Space Telescope. This was how they spotted NGC 1277’s big, dark heart.

Dr. Van den Bosch is curious about whether or not these supermassive black holes only formed in the early Universe, or if some formed later in its history.”It could just be this thing has been sitting around since the Big Bang and not done much since then. It might be a relic of what star formation and galactic formation looked like at that time,” he commented in the November 28, 2012

The team is trying to find out whether NGC 1277 is one-of-a-kind. However, as astronomer Dr. Chung-Pei Ma of the University of California at Berkeley noted in the November 28, 2012 Science Now: “When you just have one very strange system, then you can almost always cook up some theories. But if these galaxies form a class of their own, then that would be quite exciting.”

Organizing In The Dorm Room

If they are going off to college for the first time, there a quite a number of incoming freshman who are thrilled about all the possibilities in front of them. The opportunity to live on one’s own, new friends, fun campus activities and learning about themselves are just a few of the reasons as to why going away to college is a valuable experience. The majority of students generally have opportunities to live on campus or in an apartment with several roommates. All these quick changes can be a bit stressful but there are a number of aspects which can assist with the transition to dorm life. This article will talk about which items students should acquire in order to transform the dorm room into home away from home.

Warm and soft bed linens are a total necessity, especially for the days which feel lonesome and one is dreaming of their room from home. Extra long twin beds are the typical norm in most dorms so make sure you get the right fit. A good choice might be the linens manufactured with jersey knit which is very cozy and soft, they will keep one warm in the winter and cool in summer. However be certain you purchase at least two sets.

By purchasing identical hangers one can make their closet look more organized and neat. Plastic hangers that have small grooves are perfect for keeping camisoles or tank tops from slipping off. Drawer space can be quite minimal in a dorm room, so be sure to stock up on plenty of hangers in order to maximize one’s closet space. Space can sometimes be minimal in dorm rooms, so when packing for college be sure to bring only the clothes which are worn the most. A good rule of thumb is that if an item has not been worn in the last two seasons, then it’s safe to just leave it at home.

When deciding on electronic components like a TV, stereo or DVD player, it’s a necessity to coordinate with the roommates. One good solution is for one roommate to bring a single item and the other one to bring a single electronic. This keeps multiple electronics from crowding the room.

One way to keep the room space available is to purchase a good laundry basket in order to keep the piles of dirty laundry off of the floor, keeing it contained and not spread around. Another thing to help with keeping the dorm room space is to get some crates and storage bins.

Maths and English Tutors – Secure Your Child’s Future

If you are thinking whether or not to seek additional learning help for your kid, it is important to understand the short-term and long-term benefits offered by maths and English tutors working for tuition centers. In the present scenario, it is found that educational standards in schools are lesser as compared to what it was some years ago and therefore it has become important for the kids to take up additional tuitions for clearly understand the concepts pertaining to different subjects like mathematics, English and physics. Only if they could develop a strong foundation in these papers, they will be able to develop their knowledge on their own and they can also score well in their school examination, which is turning out to be highly important in the current circumstances for seeking admission to higher education universities and colleges.

Professional physics tuition centers can offer the right kind of foundation to kids and knowledge of this subject is highly essential in the future when they take up education under science stream. They will have to clearly understand the fundamental formulas associated with the subject and only then, they can improve their advanced knowledge.

Above all, maths and English tutors can also enable the children to shine in these subjects and they can learn more quickly and efficiently from these tutors as compared to learning in a classroom environment, where a number of children will be taught together. Some children will need some sort of special attention to learn things and tutors can offer the right kind of attention to each and every child learning from them in such a way that the performance of each of them can be evaluated efficiently. If they can find that a child is lagging in a particular concept, they will be offering additional attention to that particular concept to the kid.

Most of us know that mathematics is a tough subject for many and there are also kids, who find it difficult to understand English grammar. The tutors can make the children to understand grammar and since they are taught in a different manner, they can easily understand and remember the concepts as well.

As mentioned earlier, the concepts of physics should be understood by students, who wish to make their career in science field. Physics tuition centers can prepare the students not only for their school examination in physics, but they are also offered with the right kind of knowledge required for taking up the competitive science examinations.

Science: A Reflection Of Truth and Education

17th-18th century schools of enlightenment, influenced by Becon and Descartes, established their existence over conventional legacies and religious dogmas. During regimes of scholars like Copernicus, Galileo, Tolstoy and Leibniz, new thinking in science brought society into the light of science and innovation.

During this time period, man gained a new way of thinking, overtaking conventional beliefs, stereotyped morality, and religious dogmas. Science helped to establish a factual truth.

The Objective of Science.

Science teaches individuals to independently without dependence on suppositions of ideologies, outdated facts and abstract views. The main objective of science is to provide a more purified view of knowledge through use of reason and proper evidence to authenticate thinking and research.

In practical terms, using experiments, trials and tests, people will be able to solve problems and better understand the exact reasons to explain any event. Nothing happens without a reason or driving force behind it. Scholars claim that seeing is believing. It is the observer’s duty to accept logic, principle, and other ideologies through self-analysis, self-doubt, and introspection.

Everyone needs to be educated in the sciences, to better understand right and wrong and other functions of daily life. Science brings clarity to thoughts. From a viewing standpoint, a person needs proper perspective to achieve success in scientific endeavors and greater understanding!

Science Experiments to Enrich Knowledge

Apart from the importance of science as a field of study, science is also a great source of entertainment and recreation. At home there are many easy scientific experiments. Scientific experiments test the authenticity of any ideology, view or thought of anyone. Through simple scientific experiments, students can be easily trained in the sciences.

For instance, to teach your kids about Newton’s gravitational law, the only material that you would need is a ball. This simple object can teach your child about the gravitation of the earth. Simply throw the ball in the air and it will fall back to the ground. Have your children watch the ball’s movement. The gravitation of the earth pulls the ball back into a nosedive toward the ground.

Regardless of how hard you throw the ball, it will always come back down, as it is unable to break the gravitational pull of the earth. This type of home based scientific experiment is much more helpful for students to quickly learn about modern science.

Every day, people face different problems. Try to train students on how to invent powerful devices and innovative techniques to remove obstacles and make life more enjoyable. Science must be properly utilized to standard of living.

Top Ranked MBA Programs in Texas

The University of Texas at Austin McCombs School of Business is the top ranked MBA school in Texas, according to the US News & World Report 2013 M.B.A. Rankings. It is also ranked among the best in the world. According to the annual Financial Times full-time global M.B.A. ranking 2013, McCombs is ranked No. 22 among U.S. programs and No. 7 among American public schools. Among Texas programs in the ranking, McCombs alumni continue to bring in the highest salaries in the state. Moreover, the Texas MBA program is placed 31st globally in The Economist’s 2011 full-time M.B.A. rankings. Among U.S. schools McCombs is 21st, and is 5th among U.S. public schools.

In addition to Full-Time MBA, McCombs School of Business offers a highly ranked Evening MBA program which is designed for managers and professionals who seek a flexible path to an MBA that will allow them to continue working throughout their study. The Texas Evening MBA program is ranked among the top 10 part-time M.B.A. programs by U.S. News & World Report (2012).

Rice University’s Jones Graduate School of Management is another top ranked MBA university in Texas. It is ranked No. 25 nationally in the US News M.B.A. Rankings for 2013; and is ranked No. 25 in the U.S. and No. 39 among full-time global M.B.A. programs, according to the 2012 rankings from The Economist.

The Rice MBA Full Time Program provides students with a comprehensive MBA learning experience and offers specialized concentrations in marketing, finance, accounting, health care, energy, management consulting, and more.

Jones Graduate School of Management also offers an M.B.A. for Professionals and an M.B.A. for Executives, which are designed to enable working professionals to pursue a traditional MBA degree. The Rice M.B.A. for Executives program is ranked among best in the nation by the Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times. In the 2010 Wall Street Journal EMBA Rankings, Rice EMBA is ranked in the top 20. In the Financial Times EMBA 2009 rankings, the Rice M.B.A. for Executives program is ranked 11th among U.S. Executive MBA programs, 1st in Texas and in the Southwest.