The Evolution of Technology in Human Militaries

There has sure been lot of decent technology born from military tech, perhaps it’s too bad that we haven’t achieved such incredible technological breakthroughs without the actual war component. Okay so, let’s discuss this for a moment and come to terms with this from historical and philosophical perspective shall we?

If one takes the time to read Giulo Douhet’s book “The Command of the Air” – which is still available through the University of Alabama Press published in 2009, ISBN: 978-0-8173-5608-8 – a re-printed from Giulio Douhet’s 1929 work – then they will immediate see from his diary of thoughts from his work on the battlefield that the military technology of human conflict is alive and well, not only in his day – but also in our more modern era. Indeed, there is still more to come.

On the bottom of page 26 the author speaks to the future of war technology as a “constant evolution” on a graph, and almost seems to speak of an inflection-point concept where the cosign wave or military technology drops completely and starts again with a new paradigm due to the ability of aircraft to move regardless of terrain in a 3D space. Remember aircraft had just come to the battlefield in his day and changed the face of war forever.

Okay so I’d like to ask this question of the military planners, strategic thinkers, and visionaries of war technology today:

A.) Does that graph include a de-escalation of war, such as with the cold-war, or a time in the future when there is no war?

B.) It should, shouldn’t it?

That is to say will there be a future time when human wars cease to exist. I believe so, I truly do. Why you ask? Well, simply because logically and fundamentally they just don’t make sense. Why subject your civilization to future wars, causing destruction, and strife of a population only to have that group of folks rise up in the next generation to provide their concept of a suitable reciprocal response? See that point.

Just as the war game scenarios of MAD – Mutual Assured Destruction determined that a nuclear exchange was unthinkable and there would be no winner, one could ask; is there ever a winner in wartime? Really, a clear victory, no, not really, and victory doesn’t seem to last forever. Thus, what this tells me is that often the best option is to not play.

So, is not playing; the future objective of human wars? It should always be the objective is my belief. So, what will happen to the evolution of human conflict, will it evolve itself out of the game, will we rise to that occasion? Please consider all this and think on it.

Digging Out a Dunkleosteus – Gently Does It

North-western Pennsylvania Yields Up a Prehistoric Secret

Patience is one thing that geologists and palaeontologists need plenty of and when it comes to excavating and putting together one of the most ferocious marine predators known from the Palaeozoic fossil record, the patience of even the most dedicated scientist can be tried.

Monster Fish Awaiting Discovery

In a secret location in Erie County (north-western Pennsylvania, United States), Scott McKenzie, assistant professor of geology at Mercyhurst University (Erie County), is returning to a site where the fossilised dermal armour plating of a giant Placoderm is slowly eroding out of a stream bed gully. The landowners are reluctant to permit a full excavation in the heavily wooded area so the assistant professor and his team have to wait for nature to do its job and slowly erode the fossilised pieces of dermal head shield from out of the sandy shale matrix. For Scott, visiting the site at regular intervals to inspect the fossil bearing rock can be quite a depressing business. With luck, he might be able to obtain enough material within a decade or so to make a presentable exhibit within the University’s Sincak Natural History Collection, where assistant professor McKenzie is the curator.

What were the Placoderms?

Placoderms were primitive jawed fish. They are named Placoderms “plated skins” after the wide, flat bony plates that covered the head and the anterior portions of the body. They share a number of anatomical features with sharks and rays, for example they had a body skeleton made of cartilage. Most forms were relatively small, growing to less than sixty centimetres in length, but others were giants and the Erie County specimen represents a specimen of one of the most ferocious of all marine animals known to science – Dunkleosteus.

Top Predator of the Late Devonian

Dunkleosteus was an enormous, prehistoric fish with an armoured head made up of several interlocking bony plates that covered up to thirty percent of this predator’s total length. The Placoderms (armoured fish); evolved in the Silurian geological period from ancestors that had no true teeth. Instead this group of fish developed a pair of sharp bony plates that hung from the top jaw, whilst the edges of the lower jaw were also bony and extremely sharp. The jaws could be closed together like a pair of self-sharpening shears and were powerful enough to cut a two metre long, primitive shark in half. Most specimens of Dunkleosteus (D. terrelli) come from Ohio, so the discovery of a specimen in Pennsylvania might lead to the establishment of a brand new species of this type of armoured fishy carnivore.

The strata from which the dermal armour of this fossilised fish is being eroded from has been estimated to be around 365 million years old (Late Devonian). During this period in Earth’s History much of the eastern part of the United States was underwater, this marine environment would have been a dangerous place to visit with the likes of Dunkleosteus in the water, an apex predator of the Late Devonian.

Spring Thaw Brings Hope of New Fossil Discoveries

With the spring thaw Scott and his team are hopeful that more pieces of the body armour will have been revealed. It is very unlikely that elements of the cartilaginous skeleton will have been preserved, but with the jaws and armoured head potentially being the size of a small car, the specimen once prepared and assembled will make a fine addition to the University’s natural history collection.

Scott commented that Dunkleosteus was arguably the most terrifying creature on the planet in the Late Devonian. Scientists have postulated that this large, marine predator could open its huge jaws so fast that they created a suction force that pulled any unfortunate fish or sea scorpion into the mouth. Once in the mouth the sharp, shear-like bony plates would have sliced and diced up the victim. For the moment the field team are restricted to surface collecting as the landowners have ruled out the possibility of a formal excavation and in any case, digging may damage some of the fossil pieces that remain buried.

Specimen May Have Been Eight Metres in Length

Although, the Erie County specimen is not as big as some of the fossils of Dunkleosteus found in Ohio, it is no tiddler. The geologist calculates that the fossils represent an individual between five and eight metres in length and it probably weighed more than 1,000 kilogrammes. He remains unsure whether this fossil material represents a specimen of D. terrelli or a new species. This does represent the largest fish of its kind found in the Erie County area and an animal that could have given the legendary beast of Lake Erie, affectionately known as “Bessie” by locals a run for its money.

Hoping to Make a Museum Display in the Future

The assistant professor and his team, kindly put on display at the University a number of pieces of the fossil specimen that they had already found, the bony plates although fragmented are an exciting discovery and the team are eager to see what the winter weather has managed to erode out of the matrix so that they can add to their collection. At the moment the disarticulated and disassociated fossil pieces represent a 365 million year old jigsaw puzzle.

A true inspiration to students and other scientists the dedication of Scott and his team as they try to piece together the county’s very own prehistoric monster is to be admired. Fingers crossed for them, let’s hope that the wintry weather and the spring thaw provides them with yet more fossils for them to study as they continue their quest to prepare and mount their very own Dunkleosteus museum exhibit.

Everything Dinosaur is a company run by parents, teachers and real dinosaur experts. It specialises in developing educational dinosaur toys, models, clothing and games and strives to help young people learn more about science through their fascination with prehistoric animals. Many of the items featured on the Everything Dinosaur website Everything Dinosaur have been designed and tested by the teachers and real dinosaur experts in the company.

Our aim is to help young people learn more about Earth sciences through their fascination with dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. Team members are happy to provide advice and support supplying free quizzes, drawing materials, puzzles, games even recipes for dinosaur themed biscuits and birthday cakes. With something like 900 products on line including dinosaur party supplies, Everything Dinosaur has built up a strong reputation assisting parents, guardians and fellow teachers, helping young people to learn more about science through creative play.

cara menang poker online

Bermain poker adalah salah satu hal yang banyak di pilih oleh para pemain judi poker kelas kakap. Selain lebih mudah permainan ini juga dapat menjadi hobby tersendiri. Tak sedikit para kalangan muda hingga mereka yang tua ingin mencoba dan bermain di dalam game poker yang tersaji secara online. Bagi pemain pemula tentu bermain poker akan anda rasakan lebih sulit. Karena alasan belum terbiasa pemain juga akan merasa bingung dengan alur yang ada di dalam permainan. Namun, jangan kuatir sebagai permainan judi yang mudah tentu anda akan lebih gampang memahami cara bermain poker dengan mudah. Namun di samping itu kemenangan juga selalu menjadi keinginan yang ingin terus anda dapatkan.

Berikut ini ada 4 trik jitu menang poker online

  • Bermain Di Permainan Yang Mudah
    Kemenangan tentu akan lebih mudah untuk anda dapatkan jika anda bermain di jenis permainan yang mudah. Selain lebih mudah tentu anda juga sudah menguasai permainan ini sebelumnya. Meskipun bonus yang di tawarkan tidak terlalu besar namun di permainan yang mudah jelas peluang kemenangan anda semakin terbuka.
  • Berlatih Sebelum Bermain.
    Untuk dapat menang bermain poker anda dapat melakukan trik ini yaitu berlatih sebelum bermain di meja poker sebenarnya. Berlatih ini dapat anda jadikan sebagai pemanasan awal sebelum anda benar benar terjun untuk bermain poker.
  • Menguasai Permainan.
    Banyak diantara pemain yang melakukan permainan mereka dengan asal atrinya mereka hanya ingin memperoleh keuntungannya saja tanpa lihat permainan tersebut. Penguasaan dan keahlian anda didalam bermain poker sangat penting. Tanpa itu tentu kemenangan tidak akan anda dapatkan.
  • Sadar Kemampuan.
    Bermain poker memang mudah untuk dimainkan, yang sulit adalah mendapatkan kemenangan didalamnya. Jika anda ingin memenangkan permainan poker dengan mudah maka lihatlah dahulu seberapa besar kemampuan anda didalam permainan ini. Jika anda termasuk pemain yang handa maka tidak ada salahnya jika anda bermain di permainan yang sulit namun jika belum terlalu maka jangan mencoba bermain di permainan berat.

Dari ke empat trik jitu menang poker online di atas sangat membantu anda saat anda bermain di meja hijau. Menurut saya ini sangatlah berpengaruh untuk anda. Coba terapkan pada setiap permainan yang anda lakukan di agen situs poker tempat anda bermain. Jika anda belum memiliki agen poker online terpercaya, maka coba anda bermain di agen yang akan memberikan anda bonus trunover sebesar 0,5% setiap minggunya. Hanya dengan minimal deposit 25.000 anda sudah bisa bermain. Sekian dari saya, mudah mudahan dapat bermanfaat untuk anda pecinta judi poker online.

Ways To Earn An Engineering Scholarship

Engineering is one of the most lucrative career fields in the country. There are many high-paying jobs in the industry and there is a constant need for new skilled workers. The career also requires high grades, hard work and years of study. Tuition costs are relatively high for students who are pursuing a career as an engineer. There are a number of engineering scholarships available to students who are entering school or who are working to complete an undergraduate degree. The requirements are primarily academic, although there are some other factors that will make it easier for a student to acquire assistance.

Basic Requirements

Many people enter college with the intention of becoming an engineer and then change career paths later because of the difficult coursework. An engineering scholarship is based largely on academic performance. Applicants must maintain a high grade point average (GPA) while also showing a genuine interest in the subjects that are being studied. Several engineering scholarships rely on an essay more than grades. The essay that is submitted to a committee should express why a career as an engineer has been chosen. It is also important to cover what areas will be studied as well as some realistic goals for the future.


Engineers work in a wide range of different capacities and often have completely different sets of skills. This is one reason why there is such a diverse range of engineering scholarships available that are based on the exact concentration of the student. There are programs designed to help people studying nuclear, chemical or civic engineering. Finding a concentration as early as possible is one way to increase the chances of earning a scholarship.


There are engineering scholarships available for people who are underrepresented within the wider industry. These awards are designed to encourage women, low-income individuals and those with a particular cultural heritage to attend school and become trained professionals in the field. Some of these diversity awards are granted through national institutions, while others are actually provided by individual universities. A few of these programs include other types of scholarships that focus more broadly on careers in science or math.

Government And Industry Competitions

Engineers are required by the government, contractors and any company that creates industrial products. This has resulted in national competitions where students are given the opportunity to display personal talents as an engineer. The competition winners are often given an engineering scholarship that will help to pay for tuition and other expenses while in school. Some of these competitions are held by defense contractors, government agencies and multinational corporations as a way to support and encourage new talent.

Oak Leaf Anthracnose

Many trees, both native and ornamental can be affected by anthracnose disease. These fungal diseases cause premature browning, shriveling, and leaf drop. For some trees, such as Modesto Ash, Sycamore, and Chinese Elm, this can be an almost annual event often causing complete defoliation. For other species of trees, including native oaks, the effects are dependent on spring weather and / or, the local micro-climate. Often these symptoms subside or disappear as summer approaches with warmer, dryer conditions.

Weather Conditions: For many species of trees, wet cool springtime conditions have the greatest influence on the severity of infection. In Sonoma County and the San Francisco Bay area in general, late rain from April through June and or dense morning fog during the same period promotes the development of the fungi that cause anthracnose. Even the micro-climate within a neighborhood or property may affect which trees become infected with some trees exhibiting minor or no leaf damage while others become defoliated.

Symptoms: For oaks, the leaf damage caused by anthracnose infections vary from small brown spots on the leaves, to large brown spots, to curled and deformed brown or dead. Severe infections can cause current season twig growth to become infected and die back as well. The most obvious sign of this disease for most people is early leaf drop which sometimes continues through the summer. Complete defoliation is uncommon in my experience but 50%-75% does occur. Because anthracnose is not a problem every year, our native oaks seem to tolerate the disease very well. While mostly a benign disease, many property owners become justifiably concerned when their oaks begin dropping leaves prematurely.

Affected Trees: In the Bay Area of Northern California all our native oaks are susceptible to this disease. Black oak in particular seems to be most affected by anthracnose in part, I believe, because it is the first oak to break bud in the spring, making it more susceptible to disease infection. Valley oak and blue oak are also susceptible if cool damp conditions persist through the spring. Coast live oak may also be affected but their leathery leaves seem less affected than the other species. Trees affected by anthracnose early in the season may produce a second flush of leaves in the summer provided the climatic conditions that foster the disease have passed.


Native California oaks, in general, don’t need any type of treatment to control anthracnose infections because of the infrequency of infection. Generally the disease is cyclic with several years between severe outbreaks which may cause some individuals to be almost completely defoliated. Sanitation is the best treatment for native oaks which focuses on the removal of infected plant parts such as leaves and twigs. Pruning can also help if done properly by removing only small twigs and dead branches. Severe pruning can be detrimental to oaks and can promote other diseases such as powdery mildew by promoting uncontrolled sprouting. Overhead irrigation systems used on other plants or lawns but near oaks can increase the frequency of anthracnose as well.

Sherby Sanborn is a Consulting Arborist in Sonoma Valley, California.

My professional career began as an economic entomologist and then a forester working on the Department of Forestry and Fire Protections (CDF, Cal Fire) Dutch Elm Disease (DED) project.